24 December 2013

Talk to Me: Genius Hour Experiment, Part 7

Google can answer most any question in any language these days. But without the human element, our learning falls flat and remains abstract, almost artificial. Without someone to test our answers on, our knowledge can never leave our heads. Therefore, to learn a language, we must seek an audience, and more than that, we must exchange ideas with that audience. It is our job as language teachers, then, to help students find audiences in their new language and teach them how to engage with those audiences.

I must confess, in my own novice experiment, I've been putting this one off as long as I could. The idea of approaching someone in Portuguese is...alarming. And I've got a few native speaker friends I'm fairly certain would humor me, if only because they're language teachers themselves. I've also got the anonymity of the internet on my side if I choose to go the Twitter or Skype or YouTube route.

But if I start it, it's real. And they might judge me--they will judge me, they will have to. If I put my Portuguese out there, I'm saying it's ready, when I know it's not.

So I've got to build up my own confidence. I've got to collect as much input as I can--without overwhelming myself--from DuoLingo, Pinterest, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube (just having the occasional post in Portuguese pop up on my feed keeps me engaged with the language throughout the day).

I've got to make a plan.

Whom will I contact?
  1. People I know
    I know a Spanish teacher from Brazil and  a Spanish/French/ESL teacher from Portugal. They'd write me back (at least one of them may even read this before I write them). There's also my Brazillian cello teacher from third grade on Facebook if I'm feeling really brave...I don't know how much any of them would know about recycling or crafts, but I could surely do a "How is __ viewed in __?" type of survey.
  2. Tweeps
    I've added a few tweeps I have yet to contact, mostly who have reciclagem somewhere in their name or description. Their resources are generally laid out, so I pretty much KNOW what they know. I'll have to choose something specific to ask about, like one of their projects or a category of project that interests me for which they could provided informed recommendations and opinions (best projects for kids? best materials to use?)
  3. Skype in the Classroom
    While reciclagem turns up approximately 2 results, I'm sure I could ask some general questions of anyone indicating they would be interested in practicing English. And if I cannot find a random discussion buddy there, there's always LiveMocha or WeSpeke. I'm not sure how I feel about my students using those, but I will be looking more into them: WeSpeke looks especially promising. It would be especially neat to have them partner with someone in another country with similar interests to compare progress and share their findings, a sort of resource/motivator.
  4. Googled organizations
    Businesses, schools,
    and clubs devoted to selling recycled art or perhaps to green studies (do they even have those in Portuguese-speaking countries?) or to sharing projects might be willing to tell me more about what they do in their line of work, how they deal with reciclagem and/or artesanato on a daily basis.

How will I contact them?

  1. IntroductionOf course different contacts will have different levels of familiarity with A) my topic and B) me. So I would, after the fashion of my own discussion preparation plan, need to introduce myself and my purpose. Even for my Facebook friends, I'd need to introduce in what context I'm addressing them, my Portuguese-speaking self, if you will (poor souls--they've never met that version of me...I'm not sure I have, really. Reason #405 to be scared of this step.) As an aside, my kids that have taken the interpersonal step before me and jumped right in to tweeting questions were met with a little suspicion from their newfound tweeps at times. Just saying.
  2. Commendation
    If some random person from the internet contacted me out of the blue, I'd want to know "Why me?" So, without resorting to stalking, I should indicate what I know about them that leads me to believe they can help, even if it's their native language plus the length of time they spent in a Portuguese-speaking country. If some buttering up should take place, I would think that would be all to the good.
  3. Interrogation
    I mean, don't grill 'em, for Pete's sake, but ask what you want to know. Whittle each down to under 140 characters if you can, for simplicity and tweeting's sake. And try and keep it to maybe three specific--but not weirdly specific--questions. I can't imagine I'd get much but a bunch of question marks back if I asked "What do you know about recycling?" or "Do you like crafts?" At the same time, "What are Portugal's policies on recycling plastic bottles?" probably wouldn't get me too far either.
  4. Appreciation
    I'll have to thank them in advance for their patience with my Portuguese and their assistance in my progress. Even if all they do is say "Eu não posso ajudar," they have reinforced my language skills at least. And if they don't even respond, well, they helped by being there for me to at least attempt to appeal to them.

So I'm thinking this is what I'm going to need to check for students:

  • A contact list with a name and a contact point (number, e-mail address, or handle) from at least 3 of the 4 categories of people they can contact
  • A general e-mail introduction to set up their situation and what they need for someone who doesn't know them, and possibly a 140 character version as well
  • Tweet-length questions: if they can get it under 140 characters, it's probably simple enough, but they also have to make sure it conveys enough of what they're looking for, too; these should probably also be divided by the type of audience their addressing, too
  • Complete e-mail request that combines the introduction, the questions, and adds a logical closing--a sort of less-rough draft
  • Collected responses, probably on some sort of master Google Doc or Storify story (bonus if they get audio put together on a video or glog), with key parts highlighted
  • Summary of responses, wherein they have to put their own spin on what they've learned and elaborate on how this helps them
For now, I guess it's time for me to start assembling my own introduction and questions.

22 December 2013

Google Translate Addiction: Genius Hour experiment, part 6

I confess. I used Google Translate on my last two novice Genius Hour posts in Portuguese. At first it was just one word at a time, just to copy the accents. I looked it up in WordReference first, though, I swear! Then I needed a little conjugation, just a little taste, to make sure I was right. I checked WordReference after, though, I did! The forums and everything!

I can quit any time I want, really!

But did you know you can get the translator to pronounce stuff for you? And you can save phrases to, like, a frequent flyer list? AND you can tell them if a phrase was helpful, unhelpful, or offensive?

I don't know, man, maybe translators should be, like, legalized or something.

Tony Wagner tells us we as teachers must adapt our approach to a world where we are no longer the sole purveyors of knowledge: it's there for the taking for anyone with an internet connection. What students need from us now are the tools to frame questions and form informed responses. I mean, if what they need is on the translator, who are we to deny them access?

But, Señora! What if they're stranded on a mountaintop with no wifi! Or--or their phone battery dies before they can find out where the bathroom is! Or it gets stolen! Or they drop it in the toilet! Or...or they're in a job interview!

Well, that would suck for them, wouldn't it? But as many times as your algebra teacher tried to tell you that you wouldn't always have a calculator with you, exactly what percentage of the time is that true for you now? I'd say maybe 10% of my day, personally. But I will say that rapid calculation skills came in handy while I was working the drive-thru at Wendy's in college. And figuring grades is easier when I can think faster than I can type. But I HAVE a calculator, several of them, and it would be silly not to use them when it's faster. Mind you, I won't be applying for any jobs that require lightning-fast math skills any time soon, either.

Yeah? Well translators are inaccurate!

I love this video as much as the next language teacher, but really? For it to get really unintelligible, it had to go through at least one non-logographic translation, and our kids are not going to go through more than one language to get what they want anyway. And honestly, is that first translation any less accurate than any other novice? And aren't we always talking about how it's about communication over accuracy?

Understand, too, I'm approaching this as a teacher who's taught exactly ONE class of Spanish III, and my students are usually more than satisfied with their two years, thank you very much. Kids going onto AP? They're going to need to operate without a wire/calculator/Google. My kids? Probably not.

I had been hoping that Joann Clifford, Lisa Merschel, and Deb Reisinger were going to solve all of my translator questions in October's Language Educator, and while they didn't tell me how students should use translators, they did confirm that it's a fool's errand to try to just ban them, with literally 100% of students surveyed indicating they should be able to use them somehow. With my Genius Hour experience, I have to say, I'm inclined to agree.

Of course my Genius Hour situation is distinct from my students' in two key ways: 1) they have a teacher who knows the language and 2) I have experience learning languages. They have someone to tell them when Google Translate knows not whereof it speaks, and I have an inkling of when I should doubt the translation I get. Case in point: Google doesn't know the difference between onde and aonde OR that adonde is one word. On the other hand, without Google Translate, I would have kept incorrectly writing Portuguese questions with Spanish structure.

So here are the commandments I plan to implement to make

  1. Thou shalt use Google Translate only for presentational communication: not interpersonal, and not interpretive.
  2. Thou shalt translate no more than 5 consecutive words.
  3. Thou shalt guess how to say the word or phrase before consulting Google Translate.
  4. Thou shalt consult a dictionary to confirm results.
  5. Thou shalt Google unexpected results to confirm proper usage.
  6. Thou shalt maintain a Phrasebook of words searched more than once, exporting said Phrasebook to Google Sheets to share with your teacher.
  7. Thou shalt play the audio for any searches and repeat the word or phrase aloud.
  8. Thou shalt enter your finished writing and change it back to English to find places to edit.
  9. Thou shalt edit your writing until the English translation makes sense.
  10. Thou shalt play the audio of your finished writing before reading it aloud to yourself.
We will definitely have to practice these commandments procedures, and I'll have students submit evidence of their steps a few times at the beginning of the semester. Of course the Phrasebook spreadsheet sharing will be part of it, but early on, I'll also have them submit the following with some of the first writing assignments:
  • the word they need to find
  • their guess
  • what Translate said
  • the relevant dictionary entry
  • Google results (showing the word used in context)
For the pronunciation application, I'll require a few recordings--audio or video--of them playing the recording and repeating.

I think it would be well worth using translators for even the first month of class, if only to make the class understand the critical thinking necessary to evaluate the results they get.

21 December 2013

Genius Hour Driving Questions for World Languages

I think one of the biggest problems my students had with Genius Hour this past semester was choosing a topic that would drive them. Sure, they picked things they were mildly curious about, but as I've said before, if you don't feel like you're getting away with something during Genius Hour, you're doing it wrong.

And so I've resolved to spend more time on figuring out what they really need to be exploring, where their passions really lie, and then giving them the tools to share that passion with others in the target language. Because let's face it, Genius Hour in the world language classroom should probably be less about breaking new ground than it should be about learning to communicate about topics that move them already. They need the prior knowledge of a familiar topic to build on, and the discovery is really more the language itself and the audience and resources that it opens up to them.

So my plan is to spend the first week of the new semester on a series of open-ended driving questions designed to get at what they would really enjoy studying. For addressing these questions, I'm going to try combining InfuseLearning with techniques I learned at #ACTFL13  in a session on organic language acquisition:

1. Establish some basic vocabulary with visuals and gestures. 
2. Pose a question on InfuseLearning to be answered with student drawings (no words, but letters, numbers are ok). 
3. Categorize student responses, and provide Spanish vocabulary corresponding to their answers. 
4. OWL circle: move chairs out of the way for the circle (probably whole class at first) and add gestures to the vocabulary to ask students about their opinions. 
5. Write an individual summary of your ideas after the circle session.

To this end, I have come up with a bunch of questions, grouped them, and decided on some basic verb vocabulary we'd need to discuss the responses:

What websites or type of websites do you like to see?
What type of videos do you like to see?
What TV shows or type of TV shows do you like to see?
What movies or type of movies do you like to see?

Vocabulary: sitios web, programas de tele, películas, te gusta, me gusta, le gusta, ves, veo, ve

Where do you go when you are not at school or at home?
You have $100: where do you use it?

Vocabulary: dónde, escuela, casa, tienes, cien dólares, vas, voy, va, usas, uso, usa

What are you an expert in?
What do you want to know how to do?
What do you want to create?

Vocabulary: quieres, quiero, quiere, eres, soy, es, saber, sabes, sé, sabe

How do you want to help other people?
How do you want to change the world?
What do more people need to understand?

Vocabulary: cómo, ayudar, ayudo, ayudas, ayuda, otras, cambiar, mundo, más, necesitas, necesito, necesita

I have some additional questions, more philosophical and more culturally based, but I think these are the best to get the Genius Hour discussion going and to help them figure out what they need in order to actually enjoy their own passion projects.

15 December 2013

After the Skype Session

You arranged for your class to Skype with a native speaker--maybe a whole class of native speakers--and to carry on a real live conversation in the target language. Your kids introduced themselves, nodded and said "gracias" like they should when their compañeros across the internet answered their questions. But you still have a feeling that they have almost no idea what just happened. Fortunately, you recorded the whole thing.

I explained previously my master plan for preparing conversational habits for the Skype call, including a semi-scripted booklet as a sort of cheat sheet to reinforce the routine. Now allow me to explain how I have students reflect on what they hear and demonstrate their comprehension.

I first experimented with post-Skype session processing with the one Spanish 3 class I've had when they chatted with a class in Argentina and then more after a very small group session with a former professor of mine. More recently, we used it to analyze what students in a rural school in Colombia needed.

Basically, I have students revisit the conversation and edit it to demonstrate they were able to get information they could use out of the whole affair.

When the call starts, I hit "Record" on Audacity when the conversation began, then stopped when we hung up, and exported the whole conversation as a .WAV or .MP3 file.

I have had limited success with Hangouts on Air during class, but being able to record with video (for free) allows you to maintain the context clues afforded by video. Somehow it seems easier to connect with people--and find out if they really are connected--with Skype, so I've just been recording with Audacity and exporting files as .WAV or .MP3 files and uploading them to Google Drive for kids to download and edit. If you can get Hangouts on Air to work, you could edit the video with Movie Maker or WeVideo online.

If I have time, I edit out long pauses, weird noises, and rogue L1 interference.With longer conversations, especially those that go on at least half an hour, I have to divide into smaller chunks. I try to stick to under 5 minutes for upload/download purposes, but I also look for a clean break between questions. I do try to include multiple question-answer sessions in a clip so I'm not predigesting the baby birds' food for them.

I upload the edited, chunked files to a Google Drive folder and share it with the students (having a list of every email to copy and paste really is handy). Students then listen to the recordings, seeking answers they believe will help them reach their goals, whether it is persuading students to study abroad or planning a scrapbook to send to Colombia. I like to number the chunks chronologically, so students who were paying attention to the order of the conversation have a better chance of finding what they're looking for without me handing it to them.

I give students two options as to how they will present their findings: video or glog. Either way, they are whittling down the recording to segments no shorter than 30 seconds and no longer than 90. They must 1) find the file they need, 2) cut out the nonessentials, and then 3) demonstrate visually that they know what is happening in their clips.

For the most part, students just transcribe the questions (usually that they came up with themselves beforehand) and then the answers they can discern. They could, however, also use images aligned with the answers to demonstrate their comprehension, flashing colors up at the point in the video when the Colombian kids list their favorites or surrounding the designated soundbite on their glog with clip art and images that show what a student should bring on a study abroad trip.

Looking ahead, I'd like to take the response a step further and have students explain how they intend to use the information they learned in their final product. It could be as simple as "Voy a usar marcadores morados" or "Necesito investigar el valor del dolar en diferentes paises".

It's always interesting to see what students don't catch in the clips they make, but it's more valuable to see what they do catch. I think the most important thing, especially at the novice level, is that they are able to pick out what does and does not help them. I generally give them credit for having the right number of questions and answers and adhering to the limits, but I think it's worth it, too, to acknowledge the appropriateness of what they selected for their purposes. The accuracy of their interpretations should factor in too, to the extent that they are not making things up and are able to understand the gist of what was actually said. At higher levels, completeness of the response might also be worth assessing, but at the novice level, a few words and phrases is literally all that's reasonable to expect.

I do hope to set up more Skypes next semester and to have students complete a reflection at least once a grading period. After a few rounds, maybe they can handle parsing their own interviews for their own interests!

08 December 2013

Skype in the Target Language: Setup

After an awkward class Skype session or five, I've resorted to having students prepare a sort of script for what to do when. Setting the schema of the conversation beforehand is essential., but since the conversation is spontaneous, it's not a you-read-this-I-read-that script, but sort of a playbook for what to do in different situations. 

I did make an actual booklet template that I posted on Teachers Pay Teachers (sample page pictured here), but this is how I suggest breaking the pages down if you want to, say, have your students figure out what goes where:

1. Introduction: Who/where/what/how are you?
Give your name, where you're contacting them from, and in what capacity you are contacting them. Exchange some pleasantries.
  • Buenos días, me llamo __________
  • Soy estudiante en _________ y quiero hablar con ustedes de _______
  • ¿Cómo están hoy? Aquí estamos emocionados/felices/nerviosos.
2. Topic: What do you want to talk about?
Establish the general theme of your question(s) before launching into the first one. Be sure to have a rephrase ready, plus possible examples to help prompt if you're still not understood (plus it helps understand their answers if you have an idea what they might say).

  • ¿Me pueden contar algo sobre ______?
  • [Pregunta] ___________________________
  • [Pregunta versión 2] ______________________
  • [Respuestas posibles] _______   _______  _______
3. Clarification: Can you repeat/explain?
Be ready to ask them to say it again, slower,  louder, or in a different way. If you still don't understand, repeat what you heard and ask what a specific part means or if they can give examples. If possible, rephrase their answer for assurance. 
  • Otra vez, más despacio, por favor.
  • No se oye. Otra vez más fuerte, por favor.
  • No entiendo. ¿Qué quiere decir ______?
  • ¿Dijo 《 ________》?
  • ¿Quiere decir que _________?
  • ¿Me pueden explicar ________?

4. Response: I understand! 
Once you're clear on what their response is, you should acknowledge it and react appropriately to what they said, indicating whether you are pleased, surprised, saddened, impressed, curious, or simply in agreement. It is also a good idea to offer your own response to the question for comparison, if only to reinforce the connection in your own mind. 
  • ¡Qué bien/padre/chévere/chido/bárbaro!
  • ¡No me diga!
  • ¿En serio?
  • ¡Qué lástima!
  • ¡Increíble! 
  • ¡Felicidades!
  • ¿Por qué es así?
  • Yo también/A mí también.
  • Yo tampoco/Ni a mí tampoco.
  • Yo sí/ A mí sí. 
  • Yo no/ A mí no.
  • Por mi parte...
And of course, they must always end with ¡Gracias!

02 December 2013

Rowdy Writers' Workshop (Now with Badges!)

Writers' Workshop has gone through several incarnations this semester of Creative Writing alone.

We started off in a circle with hard copies and pens in hand. As the stories got longer, though, the screams of the murdered trees haunted my dreams. I also didn't relish the idea of having to paw through folders full of comments to see what students used to improve their writing come final revision time.

So we broke out the laptops. However, it appears in a class of all girls (yes, ALL girls) computer screens become privacy screens, so workshop became a ring of private gossip sessions. Sure, the comments were gathered in one place for easy, tree-free access (no pre-class copy scramble--woohoo!), but the interactions broke down, and the authors' pieces were not getting the attention they deserved.

So I took the tech a step further. We moved down to the computer lab where every desktop was facing the walls. My girls had to hold their workshop strictly in the chat function of Google Drive. I started the conversation with a simple call for compliments, then moved into critiques and suggestions. Still the girls found ways to get off track, even in writing.

I was at a loss. I threatened to move workshops to strictly homework-type assignment, but I knew that would not serve the purpose that a workshop should. I knew my girls needed that feedback. And I knew it was cheating them not to find a way to get that feedback to them. Mind you, they were not in danger of going without comments: they get more than they'd ever want from me for as many times as they'll resubmit a piece. But my feedback can be overwhelming and, well, untrustworthy, coming from an adult who doesn't "get it." If I say it makes sense, it could be because I'm not one of them. If one of them says it doesn't make sense, maybe, just maybe it doesn't make sense. And lets face it, they catch things I don't. I get a little wrapped up in the run-ons and past participle abuse, and 15 heads are better than one.

So how else does one cut down on conversations? How could I get the authors focused attention on what they'd written and honest suggestions on how to improve it.

Divide and conquer, they say. 

So I took the 3 pieces that were to be workshopped that day, and I had the authors choose their peer feedback group team-captain style. The thinking was that they'd pick people they knew would help them--or at least not distract each other (it happened to be a day three of my more studious authors had chosen for their workshops). And, you know, maybe they'd pick a friend or two, someone who got them, who made them feel good. After the group got 15 minutes to read, comment, then discuss, the authors rotated, so they got feedback from each group.

Of course splitting the class has its disadvantages. For one, I cannot be a part of every conversation: it's entirely up to them this way, to stay on track and keep the conversation productive and constructive, float though I may. For two, the authors are removed from all conversations but their own. There are a few girls who everyone wants to comment on their piece, because they know they'll tell them what's what.

We spent some time reflecting on what they wanted out of workshop and what they found valuable in a comment or commenter. And then we came up with some badges that we could award for the qualities they found the most helpful. I threw out the one who kept things on track, the one who gave the most helpful comments, and the one who was the most thorough; they added the one who makes you feel good, a good choice, I thought.

We've done a test drive with the smaller groups, and the worst criticism I've heard, aside from not getting the Super-Commenters' opinions on their workshop days, is that some of the groups were still not very helpful. We'll test drive the badge system this week, authors nominating their picks for each badge on a discussion board on Schoology while I'm out (the workshop routine did NOT work well while I was at ACTFL). I picked their groups this time and insinuated that badge achievement could be tied to extra credit down the road.

So here's hoping my rowdy girls finally have the technology, the focus, and the motivation they need to give each other good feedback.

01 December 2013

Genius Hour Presentation Goals

It's that magical time of year when students' research and reflection pay off and come together in an experience that is both enlightening and engaging for the rest of the class.

I hope.

The topics are diverse, and I want to give students as much choice in the outcome as possible. Still, I want enough uniformity that I can fairly evaluate each presentation, regardless of topic or presentation style. So there are a few things I'm going to ask to see in each, though I am still toying with the idea, too, of offering students the option of differentiated tiers, depending on how complex they want to get with their presentations.

1. Establish Linguafolio goals
Spanish II students have been putting together e-portfolios on their progress blogs, section by section, post by post all semester. I let them choose any 3 of the 9 Novice Mid or Novice High goals designated by North Carolina as the purview of Spanish II the first 6 weeks. The next 6 weeks, they had the chance to re-do any less than successful sections and add 3 more. This 6 weeks, I've designated the ones they must knock out to be complete, assigning them individually based on what they haven't attempted or haven't "passed"  (over half have at least 5 left--not ideal, but at least there's time to revisit). 

I've commented on their blogs where necessary and indicated via rubric what didn't work. Based on this information--and individual conferences if necessary--I'd like for students to choose 5 Linguafolio standards they have yet to demonstrate and figure out how to work them into their presentations. This way, they can self-differentiate and use the presentation to meet previously unattained proficiency goals.

P.S. This will be the only portion of the presentation that I will allow to be in English. I know I want them to label when they present the evidence, so it might be throughout the presentation, or I might just make little labels they could use after the initial slide/page/visual with the standards.

Possible tiers: A=5 standards demonstrated and labeled, B=4, C=3, D=2

2. Select topic-specific vocabulary to teach the class
In order for classmates to be able to follow along with any specialized topic, students will have to frontload the same as I do. 10-15 words seems a reasonable number of vocabulary words for students to begin to process while still allowing enough room for presenters to clearly communicate a wholly unique topic. Plus introducing the vocabulary seems a sound way to introduce their topic, too.

I'd recommend that they hit all 3 of Sexton's Strategies for Vocabulary Retention (visuals, actions, connections), but that might be a way to differentiate too: how many different ways they teach the information.

Possible tiers: A=Visuals, gestures, semantic groups, and strategic repetition/reinforcement for each word; B= Visuals, gestures, semantic groups for each; C=Visuals OR gestures with semantic groups for each; D=Visuals for each word

3. Design an interactive demonstration for all classmates to participate in
I want the whole class involved, with each and every presentation. I could do something with vocabulary in the end like a quiz or taking up notes, but that would not be enough to keep them attending to what is actually happening, to be involved in interpreting their classmates' work or engaging with interpersonal discourse about their topics.

I've talked with a few students about what they could do, like demonstrating their fire gear or "tattooing" their classmates or recording their own (interactive?) scary story in Spanish, and I think there are plenty of things others could do, too. However, since they're already going to have to be exercising interpretation and presentational skills at the very least, I think I want them to have the option of engaging the class with Lower Order Thinking Skills--as long as they're engaging the class. These are some ideas I'd be okay with them using. (I confess I had to hit up the Teach Like a Pirate hooks for inspiration for a few.)

Possible tiers: A=activity with ALL students up, moving, using Spanish, developing deeper understanding of the topic; B=activity with all students using Spanish and understanding topic; C=activity with all students using Spanish related to the topic; D=many students using related Spanish

4. Summarize the information at the beginning and end
The vocabulary could very well get the class warmed up, but it's worth it for the presenter--and for the class--to have a sort of thesis laid out right after and then reviewed at the end.

5. Cite the sources
It's a good habit to cite everything they use in their presentation, and they (should) already have everything gathered on their page of our Genius Hour Google Site.

6. Pre-presentation rehearsal
I want to be sure to set aside a day or two before the big day for presenters to get feedback from small groups, and also maybe to pre-record anything they want to slip in to their Linguafolio itself.

I'm not 100% how I'd weight each of these yet, but a handful of kids are ready for the planning stage, and so to prepare them in my absence (yay, state assessment meeting!), I made this template and this Powtoon (thanks to Heather and Garnet for the tip!) to get them on the right track: